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tv   BBC World News America  PBS  August 17, 2011 5:30pm-6:00pm EDT

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>> this is "bbc world news america." funding for this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation of new york, stowe, vermont, and honolulu. newman's own foundation. and union bank. >> union bank has put its global expertise to work for a wide range of companies. what can we do for you? >> and now, "bbc world news."
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>> this is "bbc world news america," reported from washington. outrage in india, tens of thousands take to the streets to support an anti-corruption campaigner. the government suggests that this is undemocratic. >> we have seen protests across india over the past 24 hours. the government is losing respect. they're also losing voting. >> the fight for libya as rebels advanced on the capital inside tripoli, there are no signs that muammar gaddafi's support is slipping. far below the famous landmarks of nice, and there is a hidden
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treasure. welcome to our viewers on pbs in america and around the globe. the world's largest democracy has become the latest country hit by mass protests. tens of thousands have poured on to the streets of india to call for the release of the jailed anti-corruption campaigner hazare. the country's prime minister is standing firm. he said he will not be bounced into action by campaigner who's thousand self off on gondi -- ghandi. >> all day long, the crowds have been building up at this jail. inside is hazare, the corruption
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campaigner who says that he is leading the second independence struggle. he is a free man but has refused to leave until the government agrees to allow him to go ahead with the public under strike to force it to adopt a new anti- corruption law. negotiations have been taking place, but in parliament, the prime minister has attacked the veteran campaigner. >> the past that he has chosen and this is totally miss conceived and fraught with grave consequences for the parliamentary democracy. our government does not see any confrontation with any aspect of society. when one aspect of society deliberately challenges the authority of the government, it is the duty of the government to maintain peace and tranquility.
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>> a crowd of thousands has been building up at india gate in the city center. if the idea of a resting hazare was to stop demonstrations from going ahead, the government has failed. the protests are getting bigger and bigger. the government is losing respect and they're also losing voters. >> for more on the background to this public outrage, i am joined by the director of globalization and international employment at the center for american progress. thank you for coming. we always see india as an economic powerhouse, but to what extent does corruption hamper progress and dominate daily life there? >> thank you for having me on. corruption is a real problem in india. this affects every aspect of
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economic and social life. people have to stand in line for hours to play their electricity bill -- to pay their electricity bill. this runs the gamut of economic activity. >> what is this -- what is stopping india from being the global player that it could be? >> india has been very important to enjoy high levels of economic growth. they have enjoyed an average of 8% economic growth over the past five years. this country is marked by very high levels of poverty and in formality. it is important that these issues be addressed and corruption facilitates the continuation of poverty in the economy. >> is stopping in the it -- we saw that india hosted the commonwealth games, was
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corruption that play? >> absolutely. the important thing is to remember that corruption has been a problem in india for decades. this is not characterized by the current party in office necessarily. this something for decades. this government has a responsibility to -- being in the leadership, to address the problem of corruption. >> how? what could they do that they are not doing? >> we can see that the prime minister acknowledged that corruption is a big problem and this is not just a problem in government or police forces, this is also in the private sector where over $300 billion a year is lost to tax evasion. >> do you think that foreign companies doing business ark implicit or in part responsible? >> i think that everyone is complicity in corruption, from a street vendor that must pay off a police officer in order to have his shoeshine shop on the
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street to the multinational corporation that pays off to get to the head of the line to pay their electricity bill, for example. >> thank you for coming in. there are riots oliver in the at the moment. there is a fears -- there are riots all over india at the moment. this finding in the the over control of the town of zawiya. gaddafi looks increasingly isolated with rebel forces making gains. as our correspondent reports, it could be some time before the stalemate is broken. >> each night in tripoli's main square, loyalists gathered. the rebels had advance within 30 miles of here but there's no sign of support crumbling. are you worried about these reports that the rebel fighters are closing in on tripoli?
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>> we are not worried. we know what is going on. if the battle comes here, we will fight. >> that is what state television has been calling for, they would like gaddafi's supporters to take up weapons and defend the city. so, in this cafe, an espresso, and a shrug. >> i am not concerned, he told me. it is all fund. morale is fine. -- it is is fine. the rebels insist that they can win this war by the end of august. yet, here, the government remains steadfast. they say that tripoli will not fall. it could be weeks or months of stalemate ahead. the battle right now is for zawiya, street by street.
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capture the town and the rebels will cut off tripoli. gaddafi forces are hitting back hard. to the east as well, the rebels are taking casualties as they fight for an oil terminal. the town has suffered weeks of fighting back and forth. britain and the rest of nato is hoping that gadhafi will fall soon. some fifth a dangerous power vacuum if that happens. -- some fear a dangerous power vacuum if that happens. >> the u.n. has withdrawn all non-essential staff from syria as president assad continued to crack down on protesters across the country. videos on the media website shows the end of the fourth day of operations in a port city which government forces claim to have clans. dozens of people are reported to have been rounded up. members in yemen have formed a
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council to oust the president. they drew together a variety of opposition groups and members of the youth protest movement. the president is getting treatment and saudi arabia and says he will return soon. the russian stealth fighter jet has made its public appearance at an air show in moscow. vladimir putin promised more investment in the russian aviation industry. as america has lurched from economic crisis to economic crisis this summer, the turmoil has been closely studied by the biggest creditor. because they own some much american debt, china has a vested interest in the health of the u.s. economy. this point is one that the leaders are keen to stress to vice-president joe biden who are
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right this morning. for more on what the vice president will be looking to achieve, i am joined by the former u.s. senator and ambassador to china, -- will joe biden receive a grilling from the chinese? >> i think that he will receive -- they will remonstrate with him some what about the u.s. economic situation and advise him that the chinese would like the u.s. to get their fiscal house in order and its budgetary problems in hand. i think the real thrust of this meeting will be to try to build more strategic trust between the two countries. >> there is stern stuff in the chinese papers this morning basically suggesting to joe biden and the americans, you have to tell us that our debts are safe, you have to do more to get your debt in order. the chinese bought this dead and my father told me, you bought an
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investment and what goes up can also come down. >> absolutely. by then will reassure the time is about the economy. -- joe biden will reassure the chinese about the economy. we are still economically very very strong. the chinese are concerned about the fall of the dollar and they will want reassurances that perhaps our fellow reserve bank here will have no more easing in the way that they so -- they sort of lower the value of their debt. after all come they are the creditors and we are the debtors. 8 that this large, the debtors hold most of the cards. -- with a debt this large, they hold most of the cart. >> what about the standard and poor's downgrading? >> i think the chinese know that the u.s., at least the investors in china, those who have the chinese sovereign investment,
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are confident that the u.s. is a strong economy and capable of meeting their financial obligations. i think that they will want to use this as a means to enhance their own status and prestige at the u.s. expense. >> you were the ambassador to china from 1995 until 1999, how easy is it for an american politician to persuade the chinese of what america wants and needs? >> i don't think that any u.s. politician can persuade the chinese to do anything that they don't want or they don't see in their vital interest. the u.s. can influence u.s. -- influence chinese policy around the edges but the chinese themselves will formulate their policy in what they perceive to be the vital interests of china. right now, that is self absorbed in their own economic problems, with its own domestic unrest in china.
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they will not want any advice from the u.s. about how to resolve these problems. >> it will be a tricky trip, thank you for coming in. >> my pleasure, thank you. >> the prince of wales and the duchess of cornwall have been visiting areas that were affected by the riots. they met some of those that lost their homes and businesses and that france has said that his charity will double spending in use projects in the worst affected area. projects inth the worst affected area. >> they saw with the rights did to london. in a frightened, they saw the remains of small businesses. his most riveting impression -- >> the sheer terror that people experience. still deep unease is they're wondering why -- what might happen at any stage.
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as many have said, there is a small minority who greeted this mayhem. -- created this mayhem. on >> and taunton him, where the spark had first been ignited, the man some of the 45 of those who lost their homes. -- they met some of the 45 who lost their homes. >> i lost my jewelry and my artwork. >> with the homes that have been destroyed, have gone their memories and their plans for the future. >> you have to do that. >> they met members of the emergency services, the police men and women did their best on what was impossible odds. the ambulance and fire crews found themselves on the frontline. >> these young people have not
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got that. >> the prince said down with leaders to discuss what had gone wrong. first, the problem of gangs. >> and people join gangs, this is a cry for help. they're looking for a sense of belonging and need. >> t. l. o. many young people had too much and direction energy. -- too many young people had too much on directed energy. >> we should help them do all sorts of things depending on the skills, abilities, talents. >> he said it was time to get to the heart of the problem. >> what we have been doing is tinkering and not getting to the root cause. make no mistake, -- >> these are matters that the prince of wales is not afraid to
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intervene. the problems of disadvantaged young people are of course precisely what the prince's charities were set up to tackle in the first place. the trust is responding to what happened last week. the response to the rights of the trust is to double its spending on projects in london, birmingham, and manchester. >> in a little bit of world news, canada has rebranded its navy and air force with the royal prefix for the first time since 1968. the defense minister says the changes to help those in uniform reconnect with their historic past and also follows a successful visit from prince william and his bride. you are watching "bbc world news america," still to come -- it is a side of paris you might not have seen. forget about the eiffel tower, these treasures are below ground.
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two senior british police officers who resigned from scotland yard over the phone hacking scandal have been cleared of misconduct. the allegations against the former police commissioner, his assistant, and two others have been dismissed by the u.k.'s police watchdog, but there will be a separate inquiry y and thata -- that yates secured a job for his daughter. "four men who were once the most senior figures in the metropolitan police are fighting for their reputations. paul stevenson resigned as head of the met and john yates followed. with him, peter clark and -- were facing tough questioning from mp's, >> did you ever receive any payment? >> good, god. absolutely not. i cannot believe you suggest
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that. >> they have dropped their investigations into all but one. for paul stevenson, they said that they don't think that he committed a misconduct offense when he expected 12,000 pounds from the hospitality from a health spa which employed this man, the former deputy editor of the "news of the world'." then there is john yates, who did not open an investigation into "news of the world," could not open disciplinary proceedings. sources say that mr. gates is curious and considering legal actions. -- on mr. myates is furious and considering legal action.
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>> this week marks the 40th anniversary of one of the most notorious psychological experience and history. in 1971, researchers at stanford university persuaded a group of volunteers to live in a mock prison in the basement of the university's psychology building. this was designed to study human responses to captivity. we have this report from san francisco. >> i acted in a sadistic way and i did so deliberately. >> sleep deprivation is a form of torture. >> each day, the level of psychological abuse increased. >> i want out. i want out now. >> the basement was turned into
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a makeshift prison. half of the student volunteers became guards, half prisoners. >> it set out to demonstrate the power of the situations and assistance to overwhelm even good people. essentially, it asks what happens when you put good apples in a bad girl? >> nothing happened on the first day but they did not have long to wait. the guards and began to embrace their roles. >> when you have that kind of power, you want to say how far can i take this power? what are the limits to my power? that is when you wrap up the abuse and you are trying to test the limits. you are trying to say, when will they stop me? >> the prisoners submitted. some had emotional breakdowns. one went on hunger strike. >> i did not eat. i thought that that might create
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a ruckus in side of this thing and it did. then, i was put into solitary confinement which was the janitor's closet. >> the researchers were losing control in the experiment shutdown. >> -- and the spirit shutdown. >> i had the realization that these are boys and i am the one who created the situation. we have long since, we should have ended it after the second broke down. >> the prisoners and prison guards met afterwards? >> how does it feel? they had very different views on its value. >> this experiment was bad science. i mean that not just in that it was unethical but also that it had no real design. >> i think the most striking thing that reminded me of
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experience, was wendy low-grade prison scandal happened. abu ghraib prison scandal happened. >> why is what happened here is so relevant? no experiment like this would be allowed to go as far today. the rules have changed partly because of what happened here. it does prompt some interesting questions about human nature. it asked us what we would do if we were in the same situation. >> i don't know about you but off for all of that stress, you might need to relax. -- but after all that stress, you might need to relax. people watching in one of the many cafes in paris. if i told you there was a vast network of tunnels beneath the city, wouldn't that be a bit more original?
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>> from an underground car park down steep and steps, we're descending into the boughs of paris. this is one of the densest of underground networks in the world with 180 miles of intricate tunnels, we are exploring a city beneath the city. >> you can see some light coming. >> this drops 40 meters from the manhole covers above. the tunnels were mined for the gypsum and limestone from which parises built. imagine the horrendous condition in which those who dug this labyrinth of corridors must have worked. operating down here from morning until night in thick dust and high humidity. in those days, they cannot afford to retire. they came down here at a young age and they worked until they dropped. no one realized how porous of
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the foundations had become. 1774 when one of these chambers collapsed fall -- swallowing an entire neighborhood. in response, king louis the 16th commissioned an architect to explore and reinforced the tunnel. every chamber was mapped and a name given to the corresponding street above it. down here, you have a mirror image. >> this street is still here but it is woder. >> on one wall, there is the symbol of the king, post revolution, it is tracked out. >> if they saw the beginning, they do something. they would put a new wall something. >> since 1955, they have been closed to the public but there is one section that remains open, the catacombs. at the time that they were
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strengthening the tunnels, they were close in the overcrowded cemeteries. they exhumed the bodies over years until they had been re- entered. it is a very different end of term excursion. what do you think of the catacombs? >> it is scary. >> of victor hugo described them as the city's luxury and magnificence. the millions who visit the city might beg to differ, but then again, they know very little of her dark subterranean secrets. clark's and definitely well worth a visit next time you are in paris. -- >> and definitely well worth a visit next time you are in paris. for more on us here, thank you so much for watching.
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>> make sense of international news at bbc.com/news. >> funding was made possible by the freeman foundation of new york, stowe, vermont, and honolulu. newman's own foundation. and union bank. >> union bank has put its global financial strength to work for a wide range of companies, from small businesses to major corporations. what can we do for you?
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>> "bbc world news america" was presented by kcet, los angeles.
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